The pyramids are one of the 7 wonders of the world and the most famous sight in Egypt. The largest pyramid on the Giza Plateau is the Great Pyramid of Cheops. Originally the pyramid was 147 m high about 10 m higher than today. At that time the Cheops pyramid was clad with fine limestone from Tura. However, this was later stolen from the pyramid and used as building material. Today you can only see the substructure made of rough stone blocks.
Construction of the pyramid began around 2,589 BC. It is the oldest and highest pyramid in Giza. Ceops was Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty in the Old Kingdom. He chose Giza as the location for his pyramid because the plateau offered a solid base and there was suitable material near by for the construction of the gigantic tomb. In addition, further building material could be delivered on the Nile. The pyramid is exactly aligned with the cardinal points, the edges at the base are each 230 m long.
The entrance is on the north side, from here a corridor leads up to the king's chamber, where the pharaoh was buried in a sarcophagus. However, this grave was looted early on, the mummy and the precious grave goods have been lost.
The Sphinx was built around 2,500 BC. Carved out of a rock and guards the pyramids. The lion's body of the Sphinx is 20 m high and 73 m long. It is believed that the head of the Sphinx represents Pharaoh Chephren. The Sphinx's beard is in the Britsh Museum in London. Egypt was then a British colony and the English brought many art treasures to their island.
The "Pyramid of Chephren" is slightly smaller, but it is a little bit higher than the "Great Pyramid". The top of the Pyramid of Chephren is still covered with pale limestone. The grave chamber is located in the pyramid's base.
The step pyramid of King Djoser was the first of its kind and was created around 2,700 BC. in Saqqara. The pyramids of Giza developed from this step pyramid. Saqqara is about 10 km south of Giza. During excavations in 2020, numerous sakophages were discovered here.
The famous Pyramids of Egypt are located in the suburb of Giza, which is about 10 kilometers west of downtown Cairo. The pyramids are among the most famous sights in the world and are the only ones of the Eight Ancient Wonders of the World that have not been destroyed.