The rock garden (kare san sui) of Ryoan-ji is the most famous Zen garden in the world. No other rock garden radiates so much peace and harmony. Visitors sit on the wooden terrace and look at the rectangular area of 30x15 m. The white stones are drawn with the rake in tracks, only 5 islands of moss and stone interrupt the strict order. The governor Hosokawa Katsumoto died in 1473 during the Onin war and decreed that a Zen temple should be built on his property. The Ryoan-ji Temple was built by the nearby monastery of Myoshin-ji under the direction of Abbot Giten. The Ryoan-ji belongs to the Rinzai school. The Rinzai school practices zazen (sitting meditation), it is also famous for gardening and martial arts. The buildings of Ryoan-ji burned down in 1790, only the rock garden created by So-ami around 1500 survived. The new buildings were aligned to the rock garden, which thus gained in importance by the fire. The rock garden is bordered to the south and west by a wall of oil and clay, which was originally covered with a thatched roof. Behind the wall you could see the mountain range of Higashiyama. This "borrowed landscape" is now hidden by tall trees. The meaning of the rock garden is unknown. But there are different interpretations. 1. The 15 stones make up 5 islands in the sea, 2. There are 5 mountain peaks that break through the clouds, 3. A tiger crosses a river with their young, 4. The islands represent the Zen monasteries of the 5 mountains. Most likely, none of the interpretations is right or wrong. Knock on the sky and listen to the sound.
Actually the temple is called Rokuon-ji (Deer Garden Temple), but it is better known under the name Kinkaku-ji "Golden Pavilion Temple". The Golden Pavilion was built in 1397 by Shogun Yoshimitsu, who united Japan and retired in 1394. He bought the Kitayama Palace and built his residence on the site. After the death of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu in 1408, the residence was transferred to the Rinzai Zen sect. The "Golden Pavilion" is the hall containing the Buddhist relics of the Zen Temple, whose two upper floors are gilded with gold leaf. The basement floor has been built in the elegant style of palace architecture, with dark wooden structures and white infills. On the ground floor is the Amida Buddha, the highest sanctuary of the temple. Amida means "boundless light" and stands for compassion and wisdom. The first floor houses the Bodhisattva Kannon also known as Gunayin. The Goddess of Compassion is often portrayed with many helping arms. The second floor is smaller and has rounded lintels, here are more Bodhisattva representations. On top of the roof sits a Feng Huang. In Chinese mythology, the bird is a symbol of luck and a sign of mercy. The property is now part of the Zen Temple Shokoku -ji, which also includes the "Silver Pavilion". The "Golden Pavilion" stands on a platform in the lake and is surrounded on three sides by water. According to Buddhist teachings, the temples should fit into the landscape and clarify the harmony between man and nature. In 1950, the pavilion was destroyed by arson. The Golden Pavilion survived even the Onin Civil War in the 15th century unscathed. The 1955 "Golden Pavilion" was rebuilt. The Kinkaku-ji is the most famous sight of Kyoto and next to the Fuji San one of the landmarks of Japan.
The temple complex of Kiyomizu-dera is one of the most beautiful in Kyoto. From the wooden terrace built over a stream, you will enjoy the best view on Kyoto. The Buddhist temple was founded in 798. The current buildings were mainly built around 1630, since the Kiyomizu-dera was destroyed in 1629 by a fire. Kiyomizu means Pure Water because, according to a legend, the temple was built where Kannon (Bodhisattva of Compassion) sat for 200 years and prayed until a young monk named Enchin came by and Kannon told him to take his place. The owner of the land Tamuramaro met the monk on a deer hunt. Enchin told him about his encounter with Kannon and told Tamuramaro that he should not shoot deer at this holy place. The deer blood was to help his wife with the birth. But Tamuramaro renounced the hunt and gave this land for the temple. Since then, the water of the creek over which the temple stands is considered to be sacred, and prayers in the Kiyomizu-dera are supposed to make for an uncomplicated birth. The Taizan-ji temple is the place to pray for an uncomlicated birth, it is located south of the wooden terrace. Pass the fountain with the holy water and follows the path parallel to the slope. In front of the Taizan-ji (Simple Birth Temple) stands a small red pagoda. The Kiyomizu-dera is famous for its main hall "Hon-do" with the large wooden terrace. In the "Hon-do" is the temple's biggest shrine, an eleven-headed Kannon statue with many arms, shown only every 33 years. The "Kiyomizu-dera" is one of the top attractions of Kyoto and is accordingly overrun by tourists and believers. Nevertheless, the Kiyomizu-dera is a must see on every trip to Japan.
The five-storey pagoda of the "Hokanji Temple" is 49 m high, making it the third-largest wooden building in the city. The pagoda was built around 1440, after its predecessor was distroyed by a fire. The "Yasaka Temple" (Hokanji) is located about 500 m to the north of the Pagoda at Shijo-Dori Street.
The castle of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu was built around 1600. Ieyasu was headquartered in Edo (Tokyo) and built Nijo Castle in Kyoto almost exclusively as a show of force. The shogun used the castle only when he was visiting Kyoto. Ieyasu deposed the Emperor and made Edo the center of Japan. He therefore had many enemies in Kyoto and needed a fortress with moat. Nijo-jo consists of two different parts. There is the Ninomaru residence, which is like the Katsura Villa a lake-facing housing estate protected by a moat and a fortress with a second moat and high walls as a refuge. The Ninomaru residence is famous for its numerous paintings by the Kano School and the magnificent carvings on the buildings. Here is also the "Nightingale Hall", a wooden walkway where the planks were laid so that a chirping sound is created when walking over the floor. The sound should warn the shogun of Ninja assassins.
The Eikando Temple nestles on the wooded hill Daimonji-yama. The Eikando is one of the most famous Zen temples in Japan, it is the main temple of the Seizan sect, which belongs to the Jodo school. The "Eikando Zenrin-ji" was founded in 853 by the monk Shinsho, a disciple of Kukai. The Eikando is famous for an Amida Buddha statue that looks over its shoulder not like others straightforward. The temple is special, because the buildings are located at different heights and are connected by bridges. The landscape of the Eikando Zenrin-ji with its gardens and a pond has much to offer. In autumn it is very beautiful here because of the leaf coloring.
The Jisho-ji is better known under the name Ginkaku-ji (Silver Pavilion). The temple was built in 1482 for the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa. The Silver Pavilion was designed after the model of the Golden Pavilion Kinkaku-ji, but it has one floor less. The "Silver Pavilion" is a hall for the Bodhisattva Kannon and is actually called Kannon-den. In addition to the "Silver Pavilion" there are other buildings in Jisho-ji, the most famous is the Togu-do from the 15th century. The garden of the Silver Pavilion is one of the most beautiful gardens of Kyoto. The temple complex was built in the wooded hillside of Higashi Mountain, the Silver Pavilion is located on a small lake with a beautifully landscaped shoreline. Exceptionally large is the rock garden, made of white gravel. White sand was once used to mark a sacred place or purify a place spiritually. Here, the white sand was poured into a tall cone reminiscent of the Fujiyama. This cone is called Kogetsudai "platform to look at the moon". Since Japanese gardens are often modeled on landscape paintings, the white sand also serves to increase the contrast to dark areas, just like in an ink drawing. This effect becomes visible as you climb up the slope and look out onto the garden from above. The Jisho-ji is located on the slope of Higashiyama, the Shogun Yoshimasa employed many artists and the place became a term in Japanese art history. The artists influenced each other and shaped an entire epoch, which is still called Higashiyama culture.
The imperial Villa Katsura is a group of buildings in a beautiful garden. The name "Katsura" comes from the river Katsura that flows next to the property. The Katsura Villa was created when the power changed from Kyoto to Edo (Tokyo). The shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu conquered power through military victories. He moved the administration to Edo, but left the emperor in the capital of Kyoto. The emperor was allowed to build a splendid new residence as compensation to the loss of power. Katsura was the "Golden Cage" for the disempowered emperor. "The Remote Palace" Katsura no rikyu was built in 1620 on an estate of the Fujiwara family of Prince Toshihito. His son Toshitada continued to build new houses until 1642. The garden was designed by Kobori Masakazu called "Enshu", the most famous garden architect of the time. Katsura is a prime example of Japanese garden art and architecture. As with the Zen temples, the garden and buildings become a harmonious unity. The imperial villa was built in Shoin style. "Shoin" is the study room around which all other rooms were created. From the study room you can look into the garden, through sliding walls (fusuma) you can enlarge or reduce the space. The villa consists of three Shoin rooms, one behind the other, facing the lake. The buildings are planned on a grid of tatami mats and stand on thin wooden supports above the ground. The simple, clear forms that do without ornaments are style-defining for Japanese design. Pioneers of modern architecture such as Walter Gropius and Bruno Taut visited the Katsura Villa and recognized many parallels to modern architecture.
The "Katsura Villa" belongs to the administration of The Imperial Household Agency Kunaicho. The imperial facilities can be visited only by appointment on the website (see link) of Kunaicho. The dates are booked out quickly, so you should book about 3 months in advance.
The Saiho-ji is also called Koke-dera Moss Temple because it is famous for its moss garden. All the ground surfaces are overgrown by moss, which makes the garden unique even in Kyoto. The Saiho-ji is a Zen temple with various areas, in addition to the all over Japan famous Moss Garden, there is also a stone garden. The Saiho-ji was built in 1339 by the Zen monk Muso Soseki on an existing temples from the 8th century. However, the Saiho-ji was destroyed in the Onin War around 1470 and was then for a long time a ruin. The temple complex was later reconstructed after the old models, but it is still different than the original garden of Soseki. The Koke-dera still enchants the visitors with its velvety moss coating, which creates a unique glow in the sunlight. The Saiho-ji can only be visited by appointment at the Prefectur Kyoto (see link).
The Fushimi Inari Taisha is one of the oldest Shinto shrines in Kyoto and the Shinto shrine with the most visitors in Japan. The Inari Temple is famous for the corridors with countless orange torii winding up the mountain. At the top of the mountain there are several temples. Protector god of the Shinto sanctuary is the fox, in Japanese "Kitsune". The fox stands for "Inari", the god of agriculture. At the altars in the Fushimi-Inari temple there are many fox representations to which the pilgrims bring offerings. The Fushimi Inari is one of the most popular photo opportunities in Kyoto.