History of Antwerp
   

100 nC

A small settlement was built in the Roman Empire on what is now Antwerp.

726

Antwerp is mentioned for the first time in a document.

836

Antwerp is devastated by the Normans.

843

After the Treaty of Verdun, Antwerp belongs to Lothar I.

959

After the division of the Duchy of Lorraine, Antwerp belonged to Lower Lorraine, which also included Cologne and Liège.

1085

The Count of Leuven is appointed Duke of Brabant. The Duchy of Brabant is roughly the region in the south of Holland between the rivrs Rhine and Meuse until the city of Namur what is now Belgium. The capital of Brabant was Leuven.

1291

Antwerp receives the city rights. Because of the port, the city developed into a trading center of the Middle Ages.

1438

Brabant falls to Burgundy through inheritance. At that time, the Grand Duchy of Burgundy also included Flanders, Holland and Luxembourg.

1477

Brabant falls to the Habsburgs.

1515

Charles V becomes duke of the Burgundian Netherlands, at the same time he is king of Spain.

1556

Philip II King of Spain, inherits the Spanish Netherlands. The Reformation prevailed in Antwerp and the Spanish Netherlands. Antwerp is one of the largest and richest cities in Europe.

1576

Philip II deployed his army to fight the renegade Netherlands. However, the Spanish king was broke and could not pay his troops. The soldiers mutiny and moved to Antwerp to pillage the rich city. The Spanish governor tried to prevent the worst, but was powerless. The Spanish Fury ravaged in Antwerp and burned the city down. In the same year the northern (Protestant) and southern (Catholic) Netherlands met in Ghent to drive out the Spaniards together.

1585

The Spanish governor Alessandro Farnese regains control of the city and banishes all Protestant citizens from the city. After the destruction by the Spanish Fury, another bloodletting begins. Rich traders and artisans leave the city. Many move to the Republic of the Seven United Provinces also known as the United Netherlands. Rotterdam in particular benefits from the refugees from Antwerp.

1648

The Peace of Westphalia stipulates that the Scheldt may no longer be used as a shipping route. The Dutch had blocked the Scheldt with their fleet since 1585. The Spaniards were broke and could no longer wage war; they had to swallow this dictation from the Dutch. As a port city on the Scheldt, this condition was catastrophic for Antwerp. The Dutch port cities developed splendidly and founded colonies all over the world. Amsterdam left Antwerp behind and became a global player.

1714

Antwerp falls to Austria after the War of the Spanish Succession.

1795

Napoleon conquers Antwerp.

1815

Napoleon was defeated in Waterloo. After the Vienna Congress, Antwerp became part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands. This country roughly comprised the area of ​​what is now the Netherlands and Belgium.

1830

The Belgian Revolution leads to the division of the United Netherlands. The differences between Belgium and the Netherlands were too big. Different religions, different languages ​​and insufficient political participation of the southern parts of the country finally led to the revolution. The Belgians received military support from the France.

1831

Antwerp is conquered by the Dutch.

1832

France recaptures Antwerp for the Belgians.

1839

Belgium's independence is recognized internationally. The port of Antwerp is flourishing again. Antwerp becomes the seaport of all of Belgium.

1885

At the Africa Conference, the Europeans divided the continent among themselves. Belgium was awarded with the Congo. Since King Leopold II had secured all shares in the Congo society, he was the sole owner of the Congo. Antwerp will be the port through which all business with the African colony is handled. Diamonds, ivory and other colonial goods flood the warehouses of the city. In return, arms are being exported to suppress the Africans. About 8 million Africans die under the hard hand of Leopold II.

1902

The first electric tram runs in Antwerp.

1914

Germany conquered Antwerp in the First World War and occupied the city until the end of the war in 1918.

1920

The Summer Olympics take place in Antwerp.

1940

Nazi Germany conquered Western Europe. Antwerp is occupied by the Germans. The Jewish population is deported. Only a few survive the Holocaust.

1943

The Allies bomb Antwerp. British and American air strikes kill around 2,000 people.

1944

The Allies liberate Antwerp. After the conquest, Antwerp became the most important supply port for the Allies. The Germans shot V2 rockets on Antwerp. It is estimated that around 5,000 people were killed by rocket attacks.

1945

Antwerp was partially destroyed after the war, but the city center survived the war relatively well. Many historical buildings have been preserved.

1975

The first tram tunnel is opened. These tunnels were to be expanded into a metro network. However, this plan was not pursued further.

1990

Around 470,000 people live in Antwerp.

2000

The population of Antwerp drops to 445,000.
2020The population increases to around 530,000 residents.
  

 

 

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Antwerp History

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