The region's most famous sight is located around 12 kilometers west of Puebla's historic center. The church of Nuestra Senora de los Remedios stands on the great pyramid of Cholula. The church sits enthroned on the pyramid of the Mexican natives. The Spanish conquerors liked to place their churches on old temples to demonstrate the superiority of Christianity. The Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de los Remedios was completed in 1575 and was inaugurated in 1629. The church was destroyed several times by earthquakes and rebuilt again and again.
The great pyramid of Cholula was built for the creator god Quetzalcóatl from 500 AD onward. In several construction phases, the structure was expanded to its current size until 700 AD. The Cholula pyramid is the largest pyramid in the world with a volume of around 4.5 million m³. It has a floor area of 450 x 450 m. The pyramid is still about 55 m tall. It used to be higher because part of it is still in the ground and the wide platform at the top suggests that there have been more levels built. It is a few meters lower than the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacán, which is by now 63 m high and therefore the tallest pyramid in Mexico. Cholula had around 100,000 inhabitants around 700 AD and was culturally associated with Teotihuacán. After the decline of the Central American center of power around 800 AD, there was also a drastic decline in population in Cholula. When the Spaniards conquered the area around 1531, the pyramid of Cholula was already overgrown with vegetation. It was called Tlachihualtepetl (man-made mountain) by the native population.
A Spanish church was built on the green hill. The Mesoamerican pyramid was examined by archaeologists from 1917 onward. In order to analyze the construction phases, tunnels were dug into the pyramid, which tourists can walk through today. Further parts of the pyramid were uncovered, which are below today's ground level. During the excavations, an altar with the relief of a feathered serpent, the symbol of Quetzalcóatl, was found. At the foot of the temple pyramid, part of the original cover layer was reconstructed. Since smooth concrete elements were used for this, the reconstruction looks very artificial.