|The history of Mumbai (Bombay)|
|Bombay was renamed Mumbai in 1995. The city has about 14 million inhabitants and is located in the Indian state of Maharashtra. In the course of time, the former seven islands were connected to form a peninsula on which today's city expanded from south to north.|
Ashoka, the famous king of the Maurya Empire, controls almost the entire Indian subcontinent and promotes Buddhism throughout the country.
The seven islands that make up the urban area of today's Mumbai are inhabited by the Koli people. A Buddhist monastery is being built on Puri (Elefanta Island), the present island was by then connected to the mainland.
The Maurya Empire falls apart and the Shatavahana take over power in Maharashtra.
The kingdoms of Kalachuri, Traikutaka and Vakata fight for supremacy in Maharashtra. The victorious Kalachuri are followers of Hinduism.
The Paramara conquer the capital of the Rashtrakuta dynasty Manyakhet and kill the king. Power is taken over by a Rashtrakuta prince who reintroduces the Chalukya dynasty.
After the islands of Mumbai had long been controlled by various Hindu kingdoms, they fell to Muslim rulers from Delhi, who were unable to maintain control over the conquered areas in the long term.
The Portuguese Francisco de Almeida discovers the islands of Mumbai as the first European.
The Portuguese defeat a fleet of Egyptian, Arab and Indian ships in the naval battle of Diu.
The Bay of Mumbai is annexed by Portugal and called Bom Bahia (Good Bay).
The British defeat the Portuguese in the naval battle of Suvali (north of Mumbai).
The Portugese city of Bom Bahia is conquered and devastated by the British.
Bom Bahia falls as a dowry to Great Britain following the engagement of King Charles II and the Portuguese Princess Catherina Braganza . The city with around 10,000 people is called Bombay by the new owners.
Humphery Cook lands in Bombay with the first British soldiers. The city becomes a British military base.
The British build a fortress.
The British allow the influx of Indians and Bombay quickly grows to over 250,000 inhabitants.
The first railway line connects Bombay with Thana.
The Indian National Congress is founded in Bombay.
Victoria Terminus Station (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) opens.
The city's population rises to 800,000.
The Prince of Wales Museum opens.
Mahatma Gandhi comes from South Africa to India and begins his non-violent resistance against the British colonial power.
In the northern Indian city of Amritsar a peaceful protesters crowd is shot down by the British Army. Around 400 civilians die and over 1,200 are wounded in the "Amritsar massacre". The British General Dyer received a medal for his deed, but not every Briton was proud of the terrible massacre.
The Gateway of India was built.
Bombay has 1.5 million residents.
Gandhi calls for the "Quit India" movement, which called for immediate independence from Great Britain.
India gains independence from Great Britain. However, it is separated into a Muslim and a Hindu part.
The British withdraw from India and the last soldiers left India through the Gateway of India in Bombay.
The state of Bombay is divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat. Bombay becomes the capital of Maharashtra.
The population of Bombay increases to 3.5 million
Over 300 people die in a series of bomb attacks.
Bombay is renamed Mumbai after the patron goddess of the city "Mumbadevi".
The population of the city rises to 17 million.
More than 200 people die in bomb attacks on trains.
On November 27th, the city is stormed by Muslim terrorists. 174 people are brutally murdered. The attackers from Pakistan came by boat and targeted Western foreigners. The 10 terrorists shot machine guns at passers-by and specifically murdered hotel guests in the Taj Mahal Palace. The majority of the victims were Indians, 17 police officers were also killed. The attackers were shot dead, one terrorist survived and was executed in 2012.
More than 20 million people live in the greater Mumbai area, the city itself has around 15 million inhabitants.
Mumbai is a fascinating metropolis with many facets. The Picture Gallery of Mumbai gives you a first impression of this mighty city.