History of Rome

 Rome was the center of the Roman Empire and is still the political center of Italy.



753 BC

According to the legend, Rome was founded by "Romulus and Remus". The date is also considered the beginning of the Roman royal era.

600 BC

The Forum Romanum was built as the common city center of the hilltop villages in Rome. The swampy area was drained for this purpose.

500 BC

The royal rule was replaced by elected consuls. It is not known when exactly this change occurred. It is believed, that it happened between 509 to 475 BC. The "Roman Republic" was an aristocratic form of government with the right to vote only for the upper class.

386 BC

At the battle of the Alia, the Roman army was defeated by the Celts. Rome was conquered and destroyed. The city was rebuilt with the Servian city ​​wall as protection.

340 BC

The "Roman Republic" subjugates Lazio Province. The city has thus secured control of the surrounding area. 

146 BC

During the Punic Wars from 264-146 BC, Rome defeated the Carthaginians and thereby gained sole control over the Mediterranean Sea.  

142 BC

The first bridge over the Tiber was built.

73 BC

The slave revolt under Spartacus took place.

49 BC

Julius Caesar crossed the "Rubicon" with his troops. He thus triggers the Roman civil war, since to protect the republic, it was not allowed to cross the borders of Rome with troops. Caesar defeated his political opponents on the battlefield.

46 BC

Julius Caesar changed the laws of the Roman Republic and appointed himself as dictator.

45 BC

Julius Caesar introduces the Julian Calendar, wich was named after him.

44 BC

Julius Caesar was murdered by a group of senators in the Theater of Pompeius in Rome. Caesar had previously been appointed dictator for life time.

27 BC

Octavius ​​became Roman emperor and is given the name Augustus. He was the legitimate successor of Caesar. The Roman Empire was a republic ruled by the Senate. The military commanders could always take over the power. The result were numerous civil wars. Caesar wanted to reform the state and concentrate all power in one person. But there was great resistance to a dictator, which is why he was murdered. Augustus managed to concentrate political and military power while still formally maintaining the republic. He became the first emperor of the Roman Empire. This brought peace and order to the country. Under Augustus the Empire got five new provinces. Augusta (Augsburg Germany), the capital of the province of Raetia, was named after him.


A great fire destroyed Rome. The exact cause remains unclear, but it is believed that Emperor Nero started the fire. Jews and Christians were persecuted as scapegoats and executed in the Coliseum.     


Trajan became emperor. Under his rule the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent. Trajan conquered Drakia (Romania), Armenia and Mesopotamia.  


The city of Rome grows to over 1 million inhabitants.


Emperor Hadrian comes to power. He consolidated the Roman Empire and fortified the borders. Hadrian's Wall named after him. delimits Britain to the north. All wars of conquest are ended. Like his predecessor Trajan, Hadrian came from Itaica near Seville.       


Rome was ravaged by the plague. 


The Aurelian city ​​wall was completed.


The Roman Empire was divided into four parts.


The Christian Emperor Constantine I defeats Emperor Maxentius at the Ponte Milvio in northern Rome. With this victory the Roman Empire became Christian.   


Division of the Roman Empire. Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. 


The Visigoths, led by King Alaric, conquered Rome.   


Rome was sacked by the Vandals.


As a result of further looting, the population of Rome drops to below 50,000.  


Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome.  


Rome was sacked by the Saracens.  


The Normans conquered Rome and devastated the city.  


The Pope moved his residence from Rome to Avignon.  


The Vatican in Rome became the only papal residence again.  


Sacco di Roma, the city was sacked and destroyed by Emperor Charles V. 


Pope Gregory XIII introduces the "Gregorian Calendar". It replaced the "Julian calendar".


Pope Sixtus V transformed Rome into a baroque city.


More than 100,000 people live in Rome again.


Around 15,000 people die from the plague.


The troops of Queen Maria Christina of Naples conquered Rome.  


Napoleon occupied Rome and the Pope was deposed.  


After the Congress of Vienna, the Pope returned to Rome.   


Revolution of the Italian unification movement, the Pope flees from Rome.  


At the request of the Pope, France occupied Rome.


Because of the war with Germany, France has to withdraw from Rome and the Italian army moved in. Rome became with about 200,000 inhabitants, the capital of the United Italy. 


March on Rome. The fascists under Benito Mussolini marched with around 50,000 supporters to Rome and took over the power in Italy. The democratic government wanted to use the army against the fascists but King Vittorio Emanuele III refused to sign the required decree. Mussolini was appointed prime minister and turned Italy into a dictatorship. 650,000 people lived in Rome.  


The Lateran Treaty of Mussolini made the Vatican an independent state within Italy.  


The " Esposizione Universale di Roma" for short EUR was opened by Benito Mussolini.     


Germany occupied Rome and deported the Jewish population.  


The "Duce" Benito Mussolini was captured and executed by rebels while fleeing to Switzerland.    


After World War II, Italy became a republic.  


Rome's first metro line was opened.  


Summer Olympic Games in Rome.  


Germany became soccer world champion in the Olympic station of Rome with a 1-0 victory over Argentina. 


Over 2.8 million people live in Rome.





The History of Rome