The history of Mexico City
|Mexico City has an exciting history, it was the capital of the Aztecs when Hernán Cortés conquered the empire. Under the Spanish, the city became the center of colonial rule over Central America. The Ciudad de México has been the capital of the Mexico since independence. With over 20 million inhabitants, it is one of the largest cities in the world.|
In Teotihuacán (approx. 50 km north of Mexico City) a high culture is emerging that builds huge pyramids and dominates all of Central America. Teotihuacán's sphere of influence extends from Yucatan until the Rio Grande.
The mighty empire of Teotihuacán collapses, leaving a power vacuum in central Mexico.
City-states emerge around Lake Texcoco and fight each other for supremacy. Among the most powerful are the Aztecs, who call themselves Mexica.
The Aztec capital Tenochtitlán is founded on an island in Lake Texcoco.
Hernán Cortés reaches Tenochtitlán and captures Moctezuma II. The city has about 250,000 inhabitants.
The Spaniards kill Moctezuma II and 200 Aztec nobles. The Spaniards then have to flee the city, and hundreds of Spaniards and thousands of allied Indians die.
Cortés attacks Tenochtitlán together with 100,000 allied Indians and razes the city to the ground. The Ciudad de México, the capital of Nueva España, is built on the ruins.
The city has over 100,000 inhabitants of them are 2,000 Spaniards.
The university of Mexico City is founded, making it the oldest in America.
Lake Texcoco flooded the city and was drained by the Spanish in the years that followed. This allows the city to expand unhindered.
The pastor Miguel Hidalgo calls for an uprising against the Spaniards in Campana de Dolores. This is the beginning of the Mexican Revolution.
The capital falls and Mexico gains independence from Spain.
More and more US Americans are moving to Texas and they declare their independence from Mexico in 1836. The Mexican General Santa Anna defeats the Texans insurgent at Alamo in San Antonio.
The US Congress decides to help its citizens in Texas and declares war on Mexico.
Civil war between conservatives and liberals over the dissolution of church property. The Liberals under Benito Juárez win the war.
Mexico is bankrupt, the donor countries England, Spain and Franceare sending soldiers to collect the debt. French troops capture Mexico City. Napoleon III sets Maximilian von Habsburg as Emperor of Mexico.
The French are driven out by Benito Juárez and Maximilian is executed.
Francisco Madero calls for a revolution against the 31-year rule of Porfirio Díaz.
The revolutionaries under Francisco Villa "Pancho" win and Madero becomes president.
The rebels under Victoriano Huerta kill Madero and take the power. Beginning of the Mexican Civil War.
The rebel army is defeated and Huerta is forced to resign.
The civil war is coming to an end, around 1.5 million Mexicans have lost their lives.
President Obregón is murdered by angry Catholics.
The population of Mexico City reaches 1 million.
The Torre Latinoamericana is the tallest building in Latin America at 182m.
The government has around 300 demonstrating students murdered. The Olympic Games take place in Mexico City.
The underground network is opened and further expanded in the following years.
Around 10,000 people die in a major earthquake.
On the same day as the 1985 earthquake, Mexico City was hit again by an earthquake in which many buildings in the city center collapsed. About 250 people die under the rubble.
In Distrito Federal (DF) live 9,000,000 people. Over 21 million people live in the greater Mexico City area.
Many thousands of people die in Mexico as a result of the Corona Virus SARS CoV- 19.
History of Mexico City
Those who want to explore the history of Mexico City on site should visit the "Museo de la Ciudad de Mexico" and the "Museo Nacional de Historia". Remains of temples of the Aztecs can be found at the "Templo Mayor" and the "Placa de las 3 Culturas". The most beautiful archaeological finds are exhibited in the "Museo Nacional de Antropologia".