History of Paris

 Paris is without a doubt one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Magnificent boulevards, countless sights and museums filled with priceless art treasures make the city on the Seine one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe.

250 BC

The Gallic tribe of the " Parisii " settle on the Ile de la Cité and found a city called Lutetia.    

52 BC

The Romans occupy the city and call it Lutetia Parisiorum.


Germanic tribes plunder the Roman city of Lutetia Parisiorum.


Construction of the city ​​wall begins on the Ile de la Cité. The city was part of the Roman Empire in the Province of Lugdunensis.


The Franks conquer Paris and make the city their residence.


Paris is besieged by the Normans but not taken.


Paris becomes the capital of France


A new city wall was built under Philippe Auguste.  


The University of Paris is founded.


The University of Sorbonne is founded.  


A plague kills most of the residents in Paris.


Jean sans Peur's troops, allied with England, conquer Paris.      


Massacre de la Saint-BarthélemyThat night, thousands of Protestants (Huguenots) were murdered in Paris on the orders of Catherine de Medici. The wave of violence spread across the country, with many Huguenots leaving France.        


King Henry IV is murdered in Paris.   


Revolt of the "Fronde" (Parliament of Paris) against Louis XIV .


Louis XIV moves to Versailles with his court.


With the Edict of Fontainebleau, the Edict of Nantes is revoked. Louis XIV forbids the Protestant faith in France. As a result, almost all Huguenots leave the country. They are welcomed in other Protestant countries because they founded factories and stimulated the economy. For example, they brought viticulture to South Africa.       


Further uprisings against the king who financially ruined the country.  


Beginning of the Seven Years' War between England and France, in which most European powers were involved.   


After the "Peace of Paris" France loses its colony Canada to Great Britain.


French Revolution! France is bankrott, the angry people stormed the Bastille.


Fearing that the French Revolution could also sweep away other monarchies, the First Coalition War begins against France. To get ahead of the monarchies, France attacks the Austrians in BelgiumAustria, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and England are fighting against France. Because of the general conscription, the French had more soldiers than the monarchies, but they were better equipped. Nevertheless, France succeeded in defeating one country after another or forcing them into a peace treaty.     


King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed on the Place de la Concorde. The lawyer Robespierre executes all who are described as opponents of the revolution. Over 16,500 death sentences are carried out across France.         


When Robespierre announced that he would start another "wave of purges", he himself was executed.


In the Italian campaign, Napoleon's talent as a general became evident. He can defeat the numerically superior Austrians several times. Napolen moves on towards Austria and can force the country to an armistice.


To prevent a coup d'état by the royalists, Napoleon Bonaparte took power himself. The second coalition war begins. Austria, Russia and Great Britain are fighting against France.     


The Second Coalition War ends with the Peace of Amiens. France got back the colonies that Britain had conquered. In return, France withdrew from Egypt.   


Napoleon I is crowned emperor in Notre Dame. In the same year the "Code civil " is issued.   


Napoleon's Russian campaign fails because the Russians set Moscow on fire and the French army had to retreat without provisions.   


Napoleon is defeated in Waterloo by the British under Wellington and the Prussians under General Blücher. 67,000 British and 48,000 Prussians defeated 72,000 French soldiers. Napoleon was exiled to the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.         


Charles X excludes the bourgeoisie from the elections, a revolution ensues. After the "July Revolution", King Charles X must abdicate. He was succeeded by King Louis-Philippe as a bourgeois king who supported the ideals of the French Revolution. It was a compromise as the rest of Europe would not accept a republic.    


After uprisings, King Louis-Philippe has to abdicate. The Second Republic is founded.


Coup d'état by Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte against the Second Republic. He is crowned and called himself Napoleon III. This is the beginning of the Second Empire.


Haussmann rebuilt Paris and laid out spacious boulevards, which were also used to quickly transport troops within the city to control the people.


The Franco-German War begins.


Paris surrenders to the German troops. The Commune uprising begins in Paris and is bloodily suppressed. Napoleon III resigns. The Third French Republic, today's France, begins.  


The 300 m high Eiffel Tower was built by Gustave Eiffel for the World Exhibition.     


The construction of the Paris metro begins.  


Paris has 2.9 million inhabitants.  


Paris is occupied by German troops until 1944.


Student riots in Paris.  


The motorway ring around Paris is completed.  

1981François Mitterand's Grands Projets begin. Major projects include the Grande Arche de La Défense, the Pyramid in front of the Louvre, the National de France Library, the Opera de la Bastille, the Parc de la Villette, the Institute du Monde Arabe and several government buildings.


The Eurotunnel under the English Channel is being completed. The 50 km long tunnel shortens the train journey between Paris and London to 2.5 hours.  


On 7.1. Islamist terrorists storm the office of the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo and execute 4 cartoonists, 6 employees and two police officers. 10 other people are seriously injured. An accomplice later shoots another policewoman. On the 9th of January the two main perpetrators are shot dead in the north of Paris. At the same time, the police stormed a Jewish supermarket at the Porte de Vincennes, where the third assassin had shot several hostages. The police also shoot this Muslim terrorist.    


Friday November 13th: Paris is hit by a series of attacks by the Islamic State in which over 130 people are murdered. Terrorists tried to get to the Stade de France during the friendly match between France and Germany. However, they were stopped by the security forces and then blew themselves up. In addition, other Muslim perpetrators shot automatic weapons in several cafes, killing many innocent people. Most people died in a concert hall where the terrorists wreaked a bloodbath before bombing themselves.     


2.25 million people live in Paris. Over 11 million people live in the Paris region.


Notre Dame Cathedral is badly damaged in a fire. The roof partially burned down and the crossing tower collapsed. The two towers of the westwork remained standing. The reconstruction should be completed in 5 years.


The corona pandemic leads to massive restrictions in France.



History Paris