In 1248 the construction of the "Kölner Dom" Cologne Cathedral started. In 1473 construction was suspended until 1840. In 1880 the cathedral was inaugurated. Since then the 157 m high spiers are the Landmark of Cologne. In 1996 the cathedral was honored as UNESCO World Heritage Site. Today the cathedral of Cologne is one of the most famous sights in Germany.
In Martinsviertel you can still feel the atmosphere of old Cologne. Although the war destroyed many buildings, the character of the neighborhood could be obtained. The "Weinhaus zum Walfisch"is one of the typical medival houses on Salzgasse also "Haus Delft" at Buttermarkt.
As the harbor silted up, the old harbor basin was filled in and turned into a market. Before WW2, the old market Alter Markt, was one of the most beautiful squares in Germany. Only a few medival houses remaind like "Zur Bretzel", now home of the Gaffel brewery.
The three-aisled basilica Gross St. Martin (Big St. Martin) was built in the 12th century on the basement of the Roman warehouses on the Rhine island. During World War II, the church was badly damaged. In 1985 the reconstruction of the basilica was completed. Since then, the mighty tower is again a landmark of Cologne.
The origin of the "Hohe Straße" (High Road) dates back to the Roman settlement of Colonia. The cardo-maximus was the main axis in north-south direction, in all roman planned cities. Even 2000 years later, it is still the main shopping street of Cologne.
In the time of the French occupation, the headquarter of the Cologne water received the house number 4711, which has been used since 1830 as a trademark of the fragrant water. In 1811 the numbering was changed and the main building "4711" was now on Glockengasse Number 12. The company later moved to Glockengasse 4. This house was completely destroyed during the WW2. The house was rebuilt in 1963 according to the Neo-Gothic house built before the war.
The "Hahnentorburg" city gate was part of the Cologne city wall, built between 1180-1220. The gate on the road to Aachen was also used as dungeon. In 1890 the "Hahnentor" (Rooster Gate) was renovated by Josef Stübben, the most famous urbanist of his time.
The popular district in the western part of the city center, between Aachner and Venloer Straße is the perfect place to enjoy the day. Numerous cafés and restaurants make the "Belgisches Viertel" (Belgium Quarter) a popular place in Cologne. The beer garden "Stadtgarten" is one of the favorite summer destinations in town.
The "Ulrepforte" was the oldest and smallest gate of the medieval city fortification. One reason for this was that there was no road behind the gate and the gate had no traffic function. Around 1450 the gate was walled and converted to a windmill (Karthäuser Mühle). The gate was named after the potters (Üler), which were located at the gate.
The "Severinstor" was also part of the medieval city wall. The gate leads to Bonn and to the south of Germany. The north-south direction along the Rhine was one of the most important trade routes of the Middle Ages. For this reason, the "Severinstorburg" also had a representative purpose. The city wall lost it's function in 1881 and was removed, but the "Severinstor" remained. Since then the gate building is used as a citizen center.