The Frauenkirche is the most famous sight in Munich, the two onion domes are the city's landmark. On the site where the Frauenkirch stands today was previously the Marienkapelle. It became too small for the growing city and was therefore replaced by a larger building. The Marienkapelle was demolished in 1472 and construction of the Frauenkirche began. For cost reasons the church was built with bricks. The architect Jörg von Halsbach planned a hall church with surrounding chapels. The building was already completed in 1488 and the Frauenkirch was inaugurated in 1494. The onion-shaped hoods were built in 1525. In 1803 the church became a bishopric and has since been called Dom zu unserer Lieben FrauCathedral of Our Lady.
During the Second World War the Munich Frauenkirche was badly damaged, the interior burned out and the vaulted ceiling partially collapsed. Little remains of the original interior. The interior is painted white and the high windows fill the nave with light. The two towers are each around 98.5 m high. Higher buildings are not allowed to be built within Munich since 2004, to not reduce the effectiveness of the cathedral.
The reason for the construction of the Theatine Church was the birth of the hereditary prince Max Emanuel in 1662. The unfinished building was consecrated in 1675. The Theatine order is a Roman Catholic male order which was founded in Italy by the Bishop of Theate. The church stands on the Odeons square just opposite of the palace. Elector Ferdinand Maria built the church here to make it the court church.
The mother of the hereditary prince Henriette Adelheid of Savoy took the vow before her birth, to built the most beautiful church in Munich. The Italian architect Agostino Barelli was committed to this ambitious undertaking. Barelli had previously built the Theatine Church of San Bartolomeo e Gaetano in Bologna. However, the Theatine Church in Munich was designed like the church of Sant 'Andrea della Valle in Rome. The overloaded interior was completed in 1688. The baroque facade with Rococo elements was built in 1767 under François de Cuvilliés the Younger. The yellow Theatinerkirche has actually become the most beautiful church in the city and one of the most famous sights of Munich.
The Feldherrnhalle (General's Hall) built in 1844, is modeled on the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence and serves as a hall of fame for the Bavarian Army. The building was planned by Friedrich von Gärtner and commissioned by King Ludwig I. In terms of urban planning, the open arcade hall is a successful conclusion of the Ludwigstrasse. The figures of Tilly and Wrede were created by the sculptor Ludwig von Schwanthaler. Tilly was the greatest warmonger in the Thirty Years' War and Prince Wrede was a commander in the coalition wars against Napoleon.
Adolf Hitler's coup attempt failed at the Feldherrenhalle in 1923. The Munich police stopped the fascists on 9 November by force of arms, killing 16 National Socialists. Adolf Hitler was arrested as the leader and imprisoned.
The New City Hall of Munich was built in 1867 because the Old Town Hall became too small for the growing city. The architect of the neo-Gothic building was the Austrian Georg von Hauberrisser. The 100 m long facade at Marienplatz was built in several phases. The eastern part was built between 1867-1874. The western part with the 85 m high town hall tower was built between 1898-1908. The carillon in the tower is famous and sounds every day at 11 a.m., 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. The carillon has 43 bells and two levels on which figures move in circles. The upper figure play shows a scene from a medieval tournament. The lower level shows the Schäfflertanz, a dance which was performed after the plague, in order to lure people back onto the street.
The town hall occupies the whole block and has 5 courtyards, of which only the courtyard directly behind the town hall tower is representative. The town hall balcony is used by FC Bayern Munich almost every year for the championship celebration.
The old town hall was built after the first Munich town hall was destroyed by fire in 1460. The late Gothic building was completed in 1475 according to the plans of the cathedral master builder Jörg von Halsbach. It served as the seat of the magistrate until the construction of the new town hall. On November 9, 1938, Reich propaganda leader Joseph Goebbels spoke in the old town hall. His speech was the prelude to the Reichskristallnacht, at which synagogues and Jewish businesses throughout Germany were destroyed. The Old Town Hall was destroyed in the Second World War. Reconstruction lasted until 1977. The Old Town Hall stands at the eastern end of Marienplatz and is used as a toy museum.
The square at the end of Neuhauser Strasse is actually called Karlsplatz but is also called "Stachus". The name comes from a restaurant that used to be here. The owner was called Mathias Eustachius Föderl, he was called Eustach. He gave his pub the name Stachus around 1728. In 1797 the square was renamed Karlsplatz in honor of Elector Karl Theodor.
It used to be the Neuhauser Tor, a medieval city gate with a high tower in the middle and two smaller towers on the sides. In 1791 Munich city fortifications were broken off, only the city gates remained. In order to create more space for traffic, the middle tower was demolished in 1861. The two side towers were connected by a neo-Gothic bridge by Arnold Zenetti. The historicist circular buildings in front of the gate were designed by Gabriel von Seidl and were added in 1902. If you come from Munich Central Station, the "Stachus" is the gateway to the city center.
The Hofbräuhaus was commissioned by the Duke Wilhelm V in 1589. Before the Hofbräuhaus was founded, beer was imported to Munich. Good master brewers were recruited from other parts of Germany and the Munich Hofbräuhaus opened in 1607. The new brewery supplied the duke and his court, hence the prefix Hof (court). It was raised to the "Royal Hofbräuhaus" in 1806 when Bavaria became a kingdom.
Production continued to increase and was outsourced to the outskirts. The new beer palace was opened on the property in 1897. The neo-renaissance building was designed by Max Littmann. Today the Hofbräuhaus belongs to the State of Bavaria and is called Staatliches Hofbräuhaus. In Munich there are several businesses that are operated under the name of Hofbräuhaus. The Hofbräuhaus is an international brand with restaurants from China to Chicago. Munich is known worldwide for its beer and the Hofbräuhaus is as famous as the Munich Oktoberfest.
The Viktualienmarkt was moved from Marienplatz to the Heilig-Geist church in 1807 at the order of the king. At the new site the market had more space and expanded. Fixed sales stands were set up in 1870. Around 1890 the market reached its current size. The name Viktualien is an old word for food. The Viktualienmarkt is divided into 7 sections, each of which represents a type of food or a type of production. The market is open daily (Mon-Sat) at the usual opening times for shops in Munich. Different opening times apply for restaurants and florists. There is also a very popular beer garden on the Viktualienmarkt.
The Viktualienmarkt is known for its high quality of products, and the prices are correspondingly high. The landmark of the Viktualienmarkt is the white and blue painted maypole, which is replaced every 4-5 years. There are many restaurants around the Viktualienmarkt and the Schrannenhalle, a former grain hall that is now used as a market hall. The lard noodles from Cafe Fischhut are also very popular.
The Residence is located between the Hofgarten and the Bavarian State Opera and is one of the most important sights in Munich. The largest city palace in Germany was created here from a fortress against rebellious citizens. From 1508-1918 the Residence served as the palace of the Bavarian kings, dukes and princes. The Munich Residence has been expanded over the centuries and is a building that combines different eras and styles. There are 10 courtyards and a small garden in the magnificent palace complex. Even if the Residence looks rather modest from the outside, there is opulent luxury in the interior.
Particularly worth seeing is the Cuvilliérstheater, the Green Gallery, the Treasury and the main attraction of the residence, the Antiquarium with the largest Renaissance vault in Europe. The main entrance is at Max-Joseph-Platz. The residence is huge, if you want to see everything you should plan with several hours for the visit.
The Peace Monument was erected in memory of 25 years of peace after the war against France (1871) in 1899. The Peace Memorial consists of a fountain, a double staircase and a column with a golden angel of peace. The 6 m high goddess of victory Nike stands on a 38 m high Corithic column. The Peace Monument marks the end of Prinzregentenstrasse in Bogenhausen. The monument was designed by garden architect Jakob Möhl and created by sculptors Georg Pezold, Heinrich Düll and Max Heilmaier. The base with 8 caryatids (female statues that serve as a column) and four mosaics that represent war, victory, peace and prosperity are worth seeing.
The Siegestor (Victory Gate) was built in 1850 as the end of Ludwigstrasse. The triumphal arch commemorates the victories of the Bavarian soldiers in the wars against Napoleon. The victory gate was designed by Friedrich von Gärtner in a classicist style. The architect used the Arch of Constantine in Rome as a model. On the victory gate stands a quadriga, which shows Bavaria on a chariot, pulled by four lions. The monument was destroyed in the Second World War and rebuilt after the war with visible signs of destruction. The victory gate reads: "Dedicated to victory, destroyed in war, admonishing peace." The Munich Siegestor divides the boulevard that begins at Odeonsplatz into Ludwigstrasse and Leopoldstrasse. The Siegestor is the urban counterpart to the Feldherrenhalle.
Another Munich landmark is the statue of Bavaria on a hill above the Theresienwiese. The 18 m high Bavaria by the sculptor Ludwig Schwanthaler was cast in bronze in 1850. For comparison, the Statue of Liberty in New York measures 46 m without base. The Bavaria, like the Athena for Athens, is considered the goddess of protection of Bavaria. A spiral staircase leads to a viewing level in the head of the statue. The classicist Hall of Fame by Leo von Klenze is at her feet. The "Great Bavarians" of all classes and professions are honored here with a bust. Ludwig I placed the order for the Hall of Fame and the Bavaria in 1837.
The Bavaria is normally accessible between April and mid-October. The Munich Oktoberfest takes place at the Theresienwiese, just below the statue.
The neoclassical gate building by architect Leo von Klenze was opened in 1862. The name is Greek and is commonly used for gates in front of a sacred district. At that time Greece was ruled by the Bavarian King Otto I., which led to a classicist high in Munich. The Propylaea and the Königsplatz (Kings Square) behind, with the two museums Glyptothek and Sate Collection of antiquities, form an ensemble that celebrates the architecture of ancient Greece. The Glyptothek was also designed by Leo von Klenze, while antique collection was designed by Georg Friedrich Ziebland.
The Monopteros is visible from afar, on a small hill in the English Garden. From the Monopteros you have a very nice view of the silhouette of the city, with the Frauenkirche in the background. It was built in 1836 by court architect Leo von Klenze in the neoclassical style. In ancient times, the Monopteros was an open temple with a statue in the middle. In classicism, the monopteros was used as a rotunda in garden art and served as an eye-catcher and covered viewpoint on a hill. The Monopteros is the most romantic meeting place in Munich.
The 25 m high wooden pagoda in Chinese style was first built in 1870. The Chinese Tower (Chinesischer Turm) originally served as a viewing platform. However, the wooden structure burned down several times, the current structure was built in 1952. The "Chinese Tower" is one of the most famous beer gardens in Munich and the most famous sight in the English Garden. For safety reasons, the wooden tower may not be entered, only the bands may enter.
The Kocherlball takes place once a year at the Chinese Tower. The dance event takes place between 6-10 a.m., otherwise the cooks (baverian: kocherl) have to work.
Elector Ferdinand Maria had Nymphenburg Palace built for his wife Henriette Adelheid of Savoy, who had given him a successor to the throne in 1662. The Elector also built the Theatine Church on Odeonsplatz for his wife. The Italian architect Agostino Barelli was commissioned to build the country villa. The "Nymphenburg Palace", as the princess from Italy called her property, was completed in 1675. This cubic country house is now the middle part of the palace. Her son Maximilian II. Emanuel of Bavaria expanded the country house from 1700 onward and made it a residential palace. Due to the stables and orangery, Nymphenburg Palace grew to a width of around 540 m. The main facade of Versailles is around 400 m long. All regents in Europe had Versailles as a model at that time. Nymphenburg Palace also stands in a baroque park with water bassins and long canals.
The Nymphenburg Palace is one of the most beautiful sights of Munich and many visitors and locals use the large park for a walk. You can visit the magnificent interiors, here you will also find the "beautiful Munich women". Pictures of Helene Sedlmayr, Lola Montez and Lady Jane Ellenborough are shown in the salon.
Welcome to Munich
The city on the Isar has the highest leisure value of all major German cities. The vicinity offers high mountains and beautiful lakes, such as the Walchensee or the Schliersee. Munich is relaxed, with countless beer gardens and the English Garden. Munich city center looks cozy, sometimes like a village. But also has modern shopping centers like the FÜNF HÖFE or busy shopping streets like the Neuhauser Straße.
The high leisure value and the accumulation of industrial companies make Munich the most expensive city in the country. The economic strength makes the population grow steadily. The population has increased to around 1.5 million in recent years. Munich will soon replace Hamburg (1.8 million) as the second largest city in the country.